Brainstorming Interview questions in C#, ASP.Net, MVC and SQL Server for 2+ yrs Experience

This article contains few questions related to the .Net Technologies. it covers few question related to OOPs concepts, C# and ASP.Net, MVC with SQL Server. These questions are having the answers with them so that they will be helpful for those who are preparing for the interviews. These are the questions which are asked in various interviews in different companies. So in that way also it will be useful as per the current industry trend and demands for 2+ years experience guys in .Net Technologies.

Brainstorming Interview questions in C#, ASP.Net, MVC and SQL Server for 2+ yrs Experience

Hi Friends,
In this article, i am describing about the few questions which are asked in the recent interviews in various companies in Pune. So these questions will be helpful for those who are preparing for the interviews in the .Net technologies. I have provided the answers so that they will be more helpful in the preparation. The questions are related to the OOPs concepts, Interface, Abstract Classes and real time use, some concepts of C# like Indexers and few ASP.Net brain storming questions inclusing MVC and some SQL Server related questions where the interviewee gets confused for the answers.

1. Why we used Inheritance. What is the benefit of this.
Ans. Inheritance is a way to inherit the base class members to the child class so that we can save lot of memory.
let's say, if you are already having some properties defined in the base class and then if you are inheriting this base class to the child class, the extra memory need not to be wasted to declare the base class members again. While inheriting, automatically they will be inherited.

class Mybase
int i, j;
float z;
class MyChild: Mybase
// no need to declare again the above variables
// as they will be automatically inherited.

As we need not to declare the variables again in the child class, so we have saved here 4 + 4 + 8 = 16 bytes of memory for the child class.
Main usage of inheritance is 'Re-usability'. No need to declare variables, methods again.. If u want, then use them from base class. It reduce your code from complexity.

2. Why C# does not support Multiple Inheritance.
Ans. Multiple Inheritance is the situation in which when there are 2 base class and a single child class is trying to inherit the members from both of them then there is the confusion that which base class member should be inherited?

class MyClass1
public void Show()
// something
class MyClass2
public void Show()
// something else
class MyChildClass: MyClass1, MyClass2
// not possible

Due to this, the architecture of .Net or the framework doesn't support such situation and will throw the compile time error.
In C++, it is possible because there both the methods in the different base classes will have the different memory location and object will be accessed through the memory location. But in Java or .Net the object accessed through the class members objects.
It is quite difficult to implement multiple inheritance in C#. But we can do this through Interfaces.

3. Why we used virtual keyword.
Ans. If we want to override the members of the base class, we can make them as virtual. The virtual members have the capability to override them in the child class. If they are not overridden, the base class implementation will be executed.
It is not the mandatory to override the virtual class members.

class MybaseClass
public virtual void Show()
Console.WriteLine("hey..I am in base class");

class MyChild: MyBaseClass
public override void Show()
Console.WriteLine("hey..I am in child class");

The preference will be given to child class always.

public static void Main(string[] args)
MyChild objChild = new MyChild();
objChild.Show(); // child class method will be called.

If a base class method needs to be overridden, it is defined using the keyword virtual (otherwise the sealed keyword is used to prevent overriding).

4. If my base class does not have virtual keyword but both class have same method , parameter and return type. then what will happen. base class method will be called or only child class method will called.
Ans. By default the preference will be given to child class. The child class method will be called always. If you want to call the base class method, then you need to use the base keyword like base.MethodName()

5. What are events and actions in c#.
Ans. Events are the objects which are binded with the particular action. Whenever an action happens, an event fires. Like button click event.The action is click and event is Button_Click which is attached with the event handler to do the particular action and get the result.

6. What is user define function in SQL or What are the user define function available in SQL.
Ans. There are 2 types of functions in SQL Server-
1. Inline functions
2. Tabular functions
Inline functions gives the result as a single value while the tabular functions return the multiple values like a table.
Both of these types of function can be created as user defined. Means we can create our own function which can be inline or Tabular by using their syntax.

Create function
return int[/Table]
Select FirstName+ LastName from Emp where EmpId = 101;
Create Function
return Table
Select * from Emp;

7. If we have one Master Page , one aspx page and one ascx page then which one will called 1st while page_load event and which one called 1st while page_Unload event.
Ans. If the content page contains the user controls then below will be the calling route-
Master Page Load event --> Content Page Load event --> User control page Load event
While unloading:
Content page Unload --> user control unload --> Master page unload event

8. What is Indexers and please give the description with example.
Ans. Indexer are the objects which doesn't need to be initialized and we can use them as it is for the storing and retrieving the data in to pages.
Indexer is represented as []. So we can use them in Session, Application types of objects when keeping the state management data.

ViewState["UserName"] = txtUserName.Text;
Session["UserName"] = txtUserName.Text;
Application["UserName"] = txtUserName.Text;

To retrieve these data, we can simply type cast them as :

lblUserName.Text = ViewState["UserName"] as string;
lblUserName.Text = Session["UserName"] as string;
lblUserName.Text = Application["UserName"] as string;

Here you can see that there is no need to create object of the indexers. Directly we can retrieve the data.

9. What are indexes in Database. How many types of Indexes in SQL Server
Ans. Indexing is used to increase the performance of a query, instead of performing the entire table scan the query uses the index to execute the query.
There are five types of indexes in the SQL Server database:
1. Clustered Index
2. Non-Clustered Index
3. KeySet Index
4. Default Insex
5. XML Index
One thing here to remember that the Indexes retrieves the data by using the Binary tree formats.

1. Clustered Index:- Those indexes which can be maximum 1 per table and they will be the key to retrieve the data. the clustered indexes retrieves the data in the B-Tree format and improve the performance of the retrieval from the table.
e.g. There are 1000 records in the table and the user want to retrieve the 234th record. Without index, the table scan will compare the record in whole table to get the matched record. So for the 1000 records, it will match for 999 times. If it found the records in the beginning, then also it will search the whole table.
Whn using the index, the below process will occur for the searching of 234th record:
1. It will take the 234th record as the root and compare the table by partitioning it in to two parts.1-500 and 501-1000
2. then it compares with the left and right and then it will found that 234 is less than 500 so leave the right part.
3. Now comparing will happen for the 1-250 and then 250-500. For this, it will check that 234 will come in the 1-250 range so leave the other part.
4. Now the comparison will be 1-125 and 126-250...and so on..
So if you calculate the total comparison it will be hardly 8-9. So we have reduces almost 990 comparison to improve the performance.
In Clustered index, the actual data exists at the leaf root of the B-tree and it search the data directly.

2. Non-Clustered Index:- it searches the data in B+ tree format where the leaf node contains the memory location of the data. Once it gets the actual memory location, by using the reference it retrieve the actual data.There can be more than one Non-Clustered indexes per table.
There can be 249 non-clustered index(in SQL Server 2005) and 999 non-clustered index (SQL Server 2008).

3. KeySet Indexes:- Only keys are stored and not the actual data. the search will happens based on the key. Once the key found, it searches the complete data for the key. So its faster than all the indexes.

4. Default Index:- When the primary is added to the table, by default the index gets created called as Default Index.

5. XML index:- When the index is created on the XML column, the index is called as the XML index. This type of index gets introduces since SQL Server 2005 version. XML type column is supported since SQL Server 2005.

10.Why we use Interface.
Ans.Interface is a way to use the global functionality throughout the application. If your application require many unrelated object types to provide certain functionality then you go for interfaces.
It defines a contract between the application and the object.
Let's suppose we want to Show the data or Print the data in many pages of the application, we can create a Interface which will contain the Abstract method and in the page where we want, we can implement it as per our requirements.

interface inf
void Print(); // abstract method
internal class MyClass: inf
public void Print()
// functionality to print to PDF document
internal class MyTest: inf
public void Print()
// functionality to print to tiff document
internal Class MyTest: inf
public void Print()
// functionality to print to .jpg format

We can see here we have separate classes and the implementation of the Print method is different without making any changes in our interface.
So if we want to implement something global, we can use the Interface, for local or limited to class, we can use the abstract class.

11.Why we use Method Overloading
Ans. To reduce the memory and the good readability, we use the Overloading. This is the concept where we can have the same method name for similar work with different behavior.
Let's say we want to get the Database connection based on the provider name to connect with different databases, we can use the overloaded methods like:

public string GetConnectionString()
// return default connection string
public string GetConnectionString(string provider)
// return connection string based on provider name

12. Why we use Method Overriding
Ans. Method overriding is the concept where we can use the same method in parent as well as in child class to reduce the memory and use the similar behavior. If we don't want to change the behavior, we need not to override it. So to make the changes in the behavior, we use the overriding.

13. What is the difference between Abstraction and Encapsulation.
Ans. Encapsulation is the biding and hiding of the data while Abstraction is to get the essential information from the raw data.
e.g. Encapsulation

class Test
private string _name;
public string Name
set _name= value;
return _name;

Here the _name is the private which is not accessible so hiding the data. All the data will be binded to the private variable as per the statement
set _name= value;

This property will be accessed by the public member called Name.
So Binding and hiding means encapsulation.
Abstraction is done by using the abstract class where we can have abstract and non abstract members.
When ever we are having the abstract members, we need to implement it/override them in the child class to use them.

class MyBaseClass
public abstract void Displaye();
class MyChildClass: MyBaseClass
public override void Display()
// do something
Here the essential things is the abstract method which must be overridden. If we add any number of non-abstract method, the child class wont care. So Getting the essential information is Abstraction.

14. In which case we can use Abstract class in our project.
Ans. Abstract class is always used when we have the limited scope or the objects are of similar types.
e.g. Lets suppose we want to get the area of few objects. This is not the global where we need to do.
So we can create the abstract method to calculate the area and then according to shape, we can override them. So here the scope is limited and will not be used throughout the application.
Hence we can use the abstract class.

15. What is the difference between Array List and Ilist.
Ans. IList is an interface for the implementing the List collection.
As the List is the generic so we can use it to restrict the type of the list e g.

List objList = new List();

It means, the List object is restricted to the int. We can't insert here any type of data in to list. Only the int is permitted.
ArrayList is the collection where we can insert any type of data as:

ArrayList objArrayList = new ArrayList();

The ArrayList will not check the type in the compilation of the program.

16. What is difference between internal class and sealed class.
Ans. The internal class object can be used with-in the assembly and not outside of the assembly. These classes can be inherited.
Sealed classes are those classes which doesn't need anything from outside. These are full classes.
These classes can't be extended.


public void show(int x , string y)
public void show(string x , int y)

Is this method overloading or what is it?

Ans. no, this is not the method overloading because, their signatures are not same
Signature= Method Name + Argument types
Show(int, string)
Show(string, int)

Both signatures are different. So not overloading methods.

public void show(int x , string y)
public void show(string x , int y)

Is this method overloading or what is it?
Ans: it is method overloading. As per method overloading the method should differ
- type of parameters
- Order of parameters
- number of parameters

18. What is the difference between Remoting and web service.
Ans. Remoting is the concept of calling the remote interfaces like communication with the heterogeneous applications but both should be developed using the same .Net language.
For the client and server communication, we use the Remoting.
Remoting is the platform dependent so both the client and server must be built in .Net Technology and both the systems should use the CLR.
Web-service is small logic which runs on the internet. It is used for the heterogeneous applications and consume the service in any application. It is platform independent so no need to have the CLR or .net framework to be installed on the machines. C++ web service can be consumes in .Net application.

19. Can we use viewstate in MVC.
Ans. No, ViewState cannot be used in MVC. There is no concept of ViewState in the MVC as it is not required. The MVC views are not having anything server side code so the view only be rendered and not loaded.
To pass the data from one page to another, we can use the ViewBag.

The reason we use MVC is to separate business logic from your view or UI and the site should be easily testable.
ViewState mixes your business logic with your UI, while MVC separates the Business Logic from the UI.
Hope they will be useful to all of us.


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