1. What is Dot-Net?

A: Dot-Net is a collection of technology, which includes different language compilers; it exports common interfaces so that its programs can run on any system that supports .Net.

(.Net is a Platform neutral framework; it acts as a layer between operating system and programming language. It supports many programming languages. It supports common set of class libraries.)

2. What is .Net Framework?

A: A programming infrastructure created by Microsoft for building, deploying, and running applications and services that use .net technologies, such as desktop applications and web services.

3. What is CLR?

A: Common Language Runtime, a runtime environment that manages the execution of .net program code and provides services such as memory and exception management, debugging and profiling, and security. The CLR is a major component of the .NET framework. It is a layer above operating system. .Net applications communicate with OS through CLR.

4. What is CTS and its functions?

A: The common type system is a set of standards that defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the runtime, and is also an important part of the runtime's support for cross-language integration.

CTS Functions:

i).Establishes a framework that helps enables cross-language integration, type safety, and high performance code
ii) Provides an object-oriented model that supports the c complete implementation of many programming languages.
iii) Defines rules that languages must follow, which helps ensure that objects written in different languages can interact with each other.
5. What is CLS?

A: Microsoft has release a small set of specifications that each language should meet to qualify as a .Net Compliant Language. CLS basically address language design issues and lays down certain standards.

The Common Language Specification (CLS) aids the development of mixed language programming. It defines a subset of Common Type System which all class library providers and language designers targeting CLR must adhere to.

6. What is JIT?

A: The JIT or Just in Time Compiler is the part of the runtime execution environment, which is used to convert the intermediate language into native executable code.

7. What is MSIL?

A: The source code in .net is compiled to an intermediate language (IL) is called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL).

8. What is Garbage Collector?

A: Garbage Collector checks for un-referenced, dynamically allocated memory space, if it finds any data that is no longer referenced by any variable it re-claims it and returns it to the Operating System.

Garbage Collector manages the allocation and release of memory for an application which is running in a managed environment (like the Common Language Runtime); it attempts to reclaim the memory used by the objects that will never be accessed again by the application. GC.Collect (); to call Garbage Collector explicitly.

9. What is ASP.Net?

A: Asp.Net is a language neutral, interoperable, server side technology that allows creation, execution and deployment of scalable web applications and web services.

10. What is an Assembly?

A: An assembly is a partially compiled code library for use in deployment, versioning and security.

11. What are the types of Assemblies?

A: i). Single file Assembly

Whenever a single .net application is used as the source for the .net
assembly then it is said to be single file assembly.

a) Private Assembly
b) Shared Assembly
c) Global Assembly Cache
d) Satellite Resource Assembly
e) Globalization and Localization

ii) Multi file Assembly

When ever an assembly is defined based on multiple assembly definition then it is called multifile assembly.

12. What is serialization?
A: Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes. Deserialization is the opposite process of creating an object from a stream of bytes. Serialization/Deserialization is mostly used to transport objects (e.g. during remoting), or to persist objects (e.g. to a file or database).
13. What is Code Access Security (CAS)?
A: CAS is the part of the .NET security model that determines whether or not a piece of code is allowed to run, and what resources it can use when it is running. For example, it is CAS that will prevent a .NET web applet from formatting your hard disk.

14. What is View State and use?
A: The ASP.NET Viewstate is a powerful feature that maintains the state of pages between post backs.
Ex: When a form is submitted in classic ASP, all form values are cleared. Suppose you have submitted a form with a lot of information and the server comes back with an error. You will have to go back to the form and correct the information. You click the back button, and what happens.......all form values are cleared, and you will have to start all over again! The site did not maintain your Viewstate. This problem can overcome with the help of Viewstate.
15. What are Validation Controls?
A: A set of server controls included with ASP.NET that test user input in HTML and Web server controls for programmer-defined requirements.
16. What is Caching? Types of caching?
A: Caching is a technique widely used in computing to increase performance by keeping frequently accessed or expensive data in memory. In context of web application, caching is used to retain the pages or data across HTTP requests and reuse them without the expense of recreating them.
Types of caching:
i) Output caching.
ii) Fragment Caching.
iii) Data Caching.
17. What is Authentication?
A: Authentication is the process of validating a user based on the credentials (username and password) of the user.
Types of Authentication:
i) Windows-based authentication
ii) Form based authentication
iii) Passport authentication
18. What is Authorization?
A: Authorization determines whether an identity should be granted access to a specific resource (user).

19. What is Web Garden?
A: A Web garden contains multiple ASP.NET worker processes.
Each CPU in the SMP server handles a separate ASP.NET worker process.

20. What is Web farm?
A: A Web farm contains multiple ASP.NET worker processes.
Each server in the group of servers handles a separate ASP.NET worker process.

21. What is web.config file? And what can be stored in it?
A: An Asp .net application has one web.config file which keeps the configurations required for the corresponding application. Web.config file is written in XML with specific tags having specific meanings.
1. Database connections
2. Session State
3. Error Handling
4. Security
22. What is Machine.config file?
A: As web.config file is used to configure one asp .net web application, same way Machine.config file is used to configure the application according to a particular machine.

23. What is State Management? Types of state management?
A: It is the process of maintaining the state of the control or a variable after page posts back from server between pages.
Mainly there are two different ways to manage web page's state: Client-side and Server-side.

1. Client-side state management:
A. Cookies.

A cookie is a small amount of data stored either in a text file on the client's file system or in-memory in the client browser session. Cookies are mainly used for tracking data settings.
B. Hidden Field
A hidden field does not render visibly in the browser, but you can set its properties just as you can with a standard control. When a page is submitted to the server, the content of a hidden field is sent in the HTTP Form collection along with the values of other controls. A hidden field acts as a repository for any page-specific information that you would like to store directly in the page.
C. View State
The ASP.NET Viewstate is a powerful feature that maintains the state of pages between post backs.
D. Query Strings
Query strings provide a simple but limited way of maintaining some state information. You can easily pass information from one page to another, But most browsers and client devices impose a 255-character limit on the length of the URL.
2. Server-side state management:
Information will be stored on the server, it has higher security but it can use more web server resources.
A. Application object
The Application object provides a mechanism for storing data that is accessible to all code running within the Web application, the ideal data to insert into application state variables is data that is shared by multiple sessions and does not change often.
B. Session object
Session object can be used for storing session-specific information that needs to be maintained between server round trips and between requests for pages
C. Database
Database enables you to store large amount of information pertaining to state in your Web application. Sometimes users continually query the database by using the unique ID, you can save it in the database for use across multiple request for the pages in your site.
24. What is managed code and managed data?
Managed code is code that is written to target the services of the Common Language Runtime. In order to target these services, the code must provide a minimum level of information (metadata) to the runtime. All C#, Visual Basic.NET, and JScript.NET code is managed by default. Visual Studio.NET C++ code is not managed by default, but the compiler can produce managed code by specifying a command-line switch (/CLR).
Closely related to managed code is managed data—data that is allocated and de-allocated by the Common Language Runtime's garbage collector. C#, Visual Basic, and JScript.NET data is managed by default. C# data can, however, be marked as unmanaged through the use of special keywords. Visual Studio.NET C++ data is unmanaged by default (even when using the /CLR switch), but when using Managed Extensions for C++, a class can be marked as managed by using the __gc keyword. As the name suggests, this means that the memory for instances of the class is managed by the garbage collector. In addition, the class becomes a full participating member of the .NET Framework community, with the benefits and restrictions that brings. An example of a benefit is proper interoperability with classes written in other languages (for example, a managed C++ class can inherit from a Visual Basic class). An example of a restriction is that a managed class can only inherit from one base class.

25. What are the different types of objects available in ADO.Net?

i. SqlConnection Object.
ii. SqlCommand Object.
iii. Sql DataReader Object
iv. Dataset Object.
v. SqlDataadapter Object

26. What are features of Asp.Net 2.0?

A: Master Pages, Themes, and Web Parts
Standard controls for navigation
Standard controls for security
Roles, personalization, and internationalization services
Improved and simplified data access controls
Full support for XML standards like, XHTML, XML, and WSDL
Improved compilation and deployment (installation)
Improved site management
New and improved development tools
27. What are different types of controls available in ASP.Net?

i. Standard Controls
ii. Data Controls
iii. validation Controls
iv. Login Controls
v. Navigation Control
28. What is connected Architecture?
Whenever the application interacts with data base using connection oriented model then it is mandatory the connectivity between the application and data base has to be maintain
through out the application.

29. What is Disconnected Architecture?
A: whenever disconnected model is used to interact with the database then the connectivity between the application and data base need not to be maintain while performing navigation are manipulation on the data.
30. What is ADO.Net?
A: ADO.NET stands for ActiveX Data Objects for .NET. That can be used by programmers to access data and data services. It is a part of the base class library that is included with the Microsoft .NET Framework.

Data source:- data source property will maintain address of the memory location where the record are available.
Data bind:- this method will read the records from the memory location and arranges in the form of table format.
Stored sub program:- it can be defined as unit of compile code maintained by data base server with particular name .
Data set:- data set can be defined as in-memory data base for the client application. This will support complete disconnected architecture with xml data representation.
Data adapter:- data adapter is collection of command objects. This will act as a mediator between dataset and data base server. This will perform 2 things.
1. It will read the data from data base and arrange with in the database.
2. The manipulations of the dataset will be updated to database server.
Data serialization:- it is the process of maintaining object state in the form of a stream. The stream can be binary standard that is platform dependent or xml base i.e.; platform independent.
Early binding:- early binding nothing but declaring the object of specific type but with this kind of object it's can't be used to hold any other type of the object/class.(OR)
Properties and method can be identified by compile time.
Ex:- dim rs as record set.
Late binding:- late binding declaring the object of generic type and that object be used to hold the instance of the any object/class.(OR) Properties and methods can be identified by runtime.
Ex:- dim obj as class name
Set obj =new class name.

Cookie:- used for storing small amount of data on client browser.
Serialization:- it is a process of converting an object in to a stream of bytes. Dot net has 2 serializations namely 1. XML serializer 2.SOAP
Component object model:- it is a specification to achieve language interop.
Thread: part of the process.
Multi threading:- it is used to execute multiple task at the same time .
Note:- by default all the .net applications are single threaded apartment application.
Methods of thread of class:-
Start:- it is used to start the processing of the thread.
Abort:- it is used to kill the processing of the thread.
Suspend:- it is used to pause the processing of the thread.
Resume:- it is used to continue the processing of the thread.
Sleep:- it is static method which is used to halt the processing of the thread for the specified mille seconds.
Thread joining:- it is used to halt the processing of all the other threads while executing the thread which has been joined.

Difference between PostBack and IsPostback?
Postback is the event which sends the form data to the server. The server processes the data & sends it back to the browser. The IsPostback property is used to detect whether the page is postback or just loaded first time.

Caching:- caching is the concept of storing frequently used data into temporary memory for faster access.
1. Output caching:- entire page caching.
2. Fragment caching:- when the caching is applied to the portions of the state management.

Cookies:- a cookie can be defined as small amount of memory used by the web server in the client system.
1.in-memory cookie:- when the cookie is maintained by the browser process then it is call as in-memory cookie. This will be temporary cookie.
2. persistent cookie:- when the cookie is maintained on the hard disk memory then it is called persistent cookie

Method overriding:- whenever the methods which belongs to the base class has be redefined at the derived class then it is called method overriding.
Method overloading:- it is the process of redefining the same method 'n' number of times provide in different types of parameters. Which will always represent different type of outcome while execution.
Shadowing:- it is used to shadow the definitions provided at the derived class such that the definitions specified at the base class will be projected.
What Methods are fired during the page load?
Init()- when page is instantiated.
Load()-when the page is loaded into server memory.
Prerender()- The brief moment before the page is displayed to the user as HTML.
Unload()- When the page finishes loading.

What is Global assembly cache?
Each computer where the CLR is installed has a machine-wide code cache called the global assembly cache. It refers assemblies specifically designated to be shared by several applications on the computer.
What is Get and Post methods?
Get Method: It creates a query string and appends it to the script URL on the server that handles the request.
Post Method: It creates a name/value pairs that are passed in the body of the HTTP request manage.

What is the garbage collection?
It is responsible for cleaning up the unused objects in the runtime environment. It is done implicitly? Yes, system.gc.collect.

What is abstract class?
An abstract class is a class that is declared abstract—it may or may not include abstract methods. Abstract classes cannot be instantiated.

What is abstract method?
An abstract method is a method that is declared without an implementation (without braces, and followed by a semicolon), like this:
abstract void moveTo(double deltaX, double deltaY);
If a class includes abstract methods, the class itself must be declared abstract, as in:
public abstract class GraphicObject {
// declare fields
// declare non-abstract methods
abstract void draw();

What is Interface?
An interface is a reference type, similar to a class, that can contain only constants, method signatures, and nested types. There are no method bodies. Interfaces cannot be instantiated—they can only be implemented by classes or extended by other interfaces.

What is manifest?
It is the metadata that describes the assemblies.
What is metadata?
Metadata is machine-readable information about a resource, or ""data about data."" Such information might include details on content, format, size, or other characteristics of a data source. In .NET, metadata includes type definitions, version information, external assembly references, and other standardized information.

Difference between Abstract and interface.
In a interface class, all methods are abstract without implementation where as in an abstract class some methods we can define concrete. In interface, no accessibility modifiers are allowed. An abstract class may have accessibility modifiers.
What is a Two-Tier Architecture?
Two-tier architecture is where a client talks directly to a server, with no intervening server. It is typically used in small environments(less than 50 users).
What is a Three-Tier Architecture?
The third tier (middle tier server) is between the user interface (client) and the data management (server) components. This middle tier provides process management where business logic and rules are executed and can accommodate hundreds of users (as compared to only 100 users with the two tier architecture) by providing functions such as queuing, application execution, and database staging. The three tier architecture is used when an effective distributed client/server design is needed that provides (when compared to the two tier) increased performance, flexibility, maintainability, reusability, and scalability, while hiding the complexity of distributed processing from the user.
This Keyword : 1:- object of current class. 2:- call constructor from another constructor.
Web services: These are web applications that provide services to other applications over the internet.

Garbage collector:- clr also contains GC which runs in a low priority thread and checks for un-referenced dynamically allocated memory.
Properties:- It's provide the opportunity to protect a field in a class by reading and writing it through the property.
Struct:- It is collection of similar data types and methods.
Diffrence between class and structure:- can't inherit one structure to another structure.
Structure can inherit the interfaces, can't inherit classes.
EX:- int i=220;
Object obj=i;-----Boxing.
Int b=int(obj);---Un Boxing.
Delegate :- A delegate consist of a reference to an object and references to one or more methods with in a object.
A function pointer contains only a reference to a particular function.
Application Variable:- Application variable get initiated when application starts only one time.
Session variable:- session variable get initiated when session starts many times.
Difference between c++ and c# :- c++ oop. C# purely oop.
C++ define a class or not define a class .
C# every thing should be in a class.

Sql Server

I want query,i want display who haveing 10 character name
Select * from employee where len(employee_name)=10

How to create new table using select command?

Select * into newtable name from old table name.

How to find the Nth max salary using sql server.

Select * from employee e where 1=(select count(distinct(e1.salary)) from employee e1 where e1.salary>e.salary)

How to find top 5 salaries in sql server.

Select top 5 salary from employee order by salary asc.

• what is a Constraint
constraint nothing but Rules.

Difference between clustered and non-clustered index
1). Clustered index: Only one clustered index is allowed for a table. The order of values in a table. Order of values in index is also same. When cluster index is created on table data is arranged in ascending order cluster index will occupy 5% of the table.

Create clustered index an (columns)
àCreate clustered indew emp_clindex an emp (empno)

2). Non-clustered index:
It is the default index created by the server the physical order of the data in the table is different from the order of the values in index.

Max no of non – clustered indexes allowed for table is 249.

Difference between function and stored procedures?

Function can return only one value. function can take only input parameters only.
Stored procedure can return many values it should take input parameters and return output parameters.


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