1. The low-level software that supports a computer's basic functions, such as scheduling tasks and controlling peripherals.
An operating system (OS) is software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.
2. An interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention. An interrupt alerts the processor to a high-priority condition requiring the interruption of the current code the processor is executing.
Types of interrupts :
Level-triggered, Edge-triggered, Hybrid, Message-signaled, Doorbell
3. In a multitasking computer system, processes may occupy a variety of states. These distinct states may not actually be recognized as such by the operating system kernel. However, they are a useful abstraction for the understanding of processes.
--->> Primary process states
I --> Created
II --> Ready and waiting
III --> Running
III - I --> Kernel mode
III - II --> User mode
IV --> Blocked
V --> Terminated
-->> Additional process states
I --> Swapped out and waiting
II --> Swapped out and blocked
4. Memory management techniques
I --> Single contiguous allocation
II --> Partitioned allocation
III --> Paged memory management
IV --> Segmented memory management
5. Time sharing refers to the allocation of computer resources in time slots to several programs simultaneously. Refers to the concurrent use of a computer by more than one user -- users share the computer's time. Time sharing is synonymous with multi-user.
6. Distributed Operating System is a model where distributed applications are running on multiple computers linked by communications. A distributed operating system is an extension of the network operating system that supports higher levels of communication and integration of the machines on the network.
Distributed Computing Systems
Distributed Information Systems
Distributed Pervasive Systems
UNIX, Linux and the Windows are also distributed operation systems.
Hope this will help you.
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