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  • Category: Career Guidance

    How to Got answers following Questions.

    Hi

    I have some questions for Operating System.

    1. Define an operating system.
    2. What is an Interrupt? Explain.
    3. What are the states of a process?
    4. List out the requirements of memory management scheme
    5. Time Sharing Systems
    6. Distributed Operating systems.
  • #760453
    Hello,

    Answers :

    1. The low-level software that supports a computer's basic functions, such as scheduling tasks and controlling peripherals.
    An operating system (OS) is software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.

    2. An interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention. An interrupt alerts the processor to a high-priority condition requiring the interruption of the current code the processor is executing.
    Types of interrupts :
    Level-triggered, Edge-triggered, Hybrid, Message-signaled, Doorbell

    3. In a multitasking computer system, processes may occupy a variety of states. These distinct states may not actually be recognized as such by the operating system kernel. However, they are a useful abstraction for the understanding of processes.
    --->> Primary process states
    I --> Created
    II --> Ready and waiting
    III --> Running
    III - I --> Kernel mode
    III - II --> User mode
    IV --> Blocked
    V --> Terminated

    -->> Additional process states
    I --> Swapped out and waiting
    II --> Swapped out and blocked

    4. Memory management techniques
    I --> Single contiguous allocation
    II --> Partitioned allocation
    III --> Paged memory management
    IV --> Segmented memory management

    5. Time sharing refers to the allocation of computer resources in time slots to several programs simultaneously. Refers to the concurrent use of a computer by more than one user -- users share the computer's time. Time sharing is synonymous with multi-user.

    6. Distributed Operating System is a model where distributed applications are running on multiple computers linked by communications. A distributed operating system is an extension of the network operating system that supports higher levels of communication and integration of the machines on the network.
    Types :
    Distributed Computing Systems
    Distributed Information Systems
    Distributed Pervasive Systems

    UNIX, Linux and the Windows are also distributed operation systems.

    Hope this will help you.

    Regards,
    Nirav Lalan
    DNS Gold Member
    "Failure is the path of least persistence"

  • #760458
    Nirav,

    I think, asker also has access to Wikipedia and he can also copy paste. Kindly write answer on your words.

    Respect author of original content.

    -------------
    Glad to be,
    John Bhatt
    Editor - DNS Forums
    https://www.pyarb.com

  • #760493
    @John. I agree with you.

    @Nirav. Dont copy and paste content from other websites.
    Answer the forum questions only which you are familiar with, even it is of two or three lines of your own.

    Regards

    Sridhar Thota.
    "Poverty means.. Poverty of knowledge.."

    Sridhar Thota.
    Editor: DNS Forum.

  • #766545
    HI,

    1. An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.

    2.An interrupt is a signal from a device attached to a computer or from a program within the computer that causes the main program that operates the computer (the operating system ) to stop and figure out what to do next.

    3.A process is a program in execution. The execution of a process must progress in a sequential fashion. Definition of process is following.

    A process is defined as an entity which represents the basic unit of work to be implemented in the system.
    1 New
    The process is being created.
    2 Ready
    The process is waiting to be assigned to a processor. Ready processes are waiting to have the processor allocated to them by the operating system so that they can run.
    3 Running
    Process instructions are being executed (i.e. The process that is currently being executed).
    4 Waiting
    The process is waiting for some event to occur (such as the completion of an I/O operation).
    5 Terminated
    The process has finished execution.


    4.Memory management is the functionality of an operating system which handles or manages primary memory. Memory management keeps track of each and every memory location either it is allocated to some process or it is free. It checks how much memory is to be allocated to processes. It decides which process will get memory at what time. It tracks whenever some memory gets freed or unallocated and correspondingly it updates the status.
    Compile time -- When it is known at compile time where the process will reside, compile time binding is used to generate the absolute code.

    Load time -- When it is not known at compile time where the process will reside in memory, then the compiler generates re-locatable code.

    Execution time -- If the process can be moved during its execution from one memory segment to another, then binding must be delayed to be done at run time

    5.Time sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time. Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of multiprogramming. Processor's time which is shared among multiple users simultaneously is termed as time-sharing.

    6.A distributed operating system is a software over a collection of independent, networked, communicating, and physically separate computational nodes. Each individual node holds a specific software subset of the global aggregate operating system.

    Regards,
    Karunanidhi.K


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